Chapter 2 Sustainable Development Goal 2.2: Malnutrition

2.4 ANAEMIA AMONG WOMEN AGED 15 TO 49 YEARS

The global prevalence of anaemia among women aged 15 to 49 years was 29.9 percent in 2019, equivalent to the level in 2005 and lower than it was in 2000 (31.2 percent) (FIGURE 14, TABLE 10). As for the ECA region, the prevalence of anaemia among women aged 15 to 49 years has always been below the global estimate. However, the prevalence in the region has been increasing since 2012. In 2019, the prevalence of anaemia was 18.8 percent; this was 1.4 percentage points higher than the 2012 baseline year for tracking the progress of this global nutrition target. In 2019, the prevalence was higher than the regional average in all subregions but the EFTA countries and the EU-27 and the United Kingdom. The highest prevalence in 2019 was observed in the Caucasus (30.4 percent, close to the global estimate), followed by Central Asia (28.1 percent) and CIS Europe and Ukraine (20.5 percent), indicating that anaemia is a moderate public health problem (prevalence of 20.0 percent to 39.9 percent) in these subregions (WHO, 2023).

TABLE 10.

Prevalence of anaemia among women aged 15 to 49 years by subregion, percent

200020052010201220152019
WORLD31.229.928.628.528.829.9
Europe and Central Asia19.018.217.417.417.718.8
Caucasus34.333.030.530.029.830.4
Central Asia40.435.029.928.828.028.1
CIS Europe and Ukraine20.319.718.818.919.220.5
EFTA countries10.49.99.910.010.411.6
EU-27 and the United Kingdom12.912.512.412.512.914.0
Other33.831.529.128.428.028.4
Western Balkans23.422.321.421.421.822.8
NOTE: The estimates refer to women aged 15 to 49 years - including those who were pregnant, those who are not pregnant and those who are lactating - and were adjusted for altitude and smoking. WHO defines anaemia in pregnant women as a haemoglobin concentration of <110 g/L at sea level, and anaemia in non-pregnant women and lactating women as a haemoglobin concentration of <120 g/L.
SOURCE: Adapted from WHO. 2021. Global anaemia estimates, Edition 2021. In: WHO I Global Health Observatory (GHO) data repository. [Cited 20 April 2023]. www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/topics/anaemia_in_women_and_children
FIGURE 14

Prevalence of anaemia among women aged 15 to 49 years by subregion

NOTE: The estimates refer to women aged 15 to 49 years - including those who were pregnant, those who are not pregnant and those who are lactating - and were adjusted for altitude and smoking. WHO defines anaemia in pregnant women as a haemoglobin concentration of <110 g/L at sea level, and anaemia in non-pregnant women and lactating women as a haemoglobin concentration of <120 g/L.
SOURCE: Adapted from WHO. 2021. Global anaemia estimates, Edition 2021. In: WHO I Global Health Observatory (GHO) data repository. [Cited 20 April 2023]. www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/topics/anaemia_in_women_and_children
Download: https://doi.org/10.4060/CC8608EN-fig14

The country-level data presented in FIGURE 15 show that 18 countries made some progress from 2000 to 2019 in reducing the prevalence of anaemia, in particular Uzbekistan (-21.7 percentage points), Kazakhstan (-6.2 percentage points), Turkmenistan (-6.1 percentage points), Azerbaijan (-5.9 percentage points), Georgia and Tajikistan (-4.0 percentage points) and Armenia (-3.1 percentage points). The other 30 ECA countries saw increases in the prevalence of anaemia, in particular Ukraine (+4.2 percentage points) and North Macedonia (+3.5 percentage points). In addition, three countries had values in 2019 that were higher than the global estimate: Kyrgyzstan (35.8 percent), Tajikistan (35.2 percent) and Azerbaijan (35.1 percent).

FIGURE 15

Prevalence of anaemia among women aged 15 to 49 years by country and subregion

SOURCE: The estimates refer to women aged 15 to 49 years - including those who were pregnant, those who are not pregnant and those who are lactating -and were adjusted for altitude and smoking. WHO defines anaemia in pregnant women as a haemoglobin concentration of <110 g/L at sea level, and anaemia in non-pregnant women and lactating women as a haemoglobin concentration of <120 g/L.
SOURCE: Adapted from WHO. 2021. Global anaemia estimates, Edition 2021. In: WHO I Global Health Observatory (GHO) data repository. [Cited 20 April 2023]. www.who.int/data/gho/data/themes/topics/anaemia_in_women_and_children
Download: https://doi.org/10.4060/CC8608EN-fig15