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Rift Valley fever surveillance

FAO Animal Production and Health Manual No. 21.












Jeffrey Mariner. 2018. Rift Valley Fever Surveillance. FAO Animal Production and Health Manual No. 21. Rome. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). 



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    Rift Valley fever action framework 2022
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    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an arboviral disease affecting humans and livestock transmitted by mosquitoes. It is endemic to large areas of Africa, resulting in widespread abortion and neonatal mortality in livestock, and severe complications in a small but significant percentage of human cases. The range of RVF is largely determined by the distribution of suitable vector habitat and rainfall, which changes over time and as a result of climate change. In addition to which, the movement of animals and animal products for trade may lead to the spread of RVF to previously non-infected areas. This RVF Action Framework is intended to provide decision makers with guidance on the best course of action to take in response to an RVF outbreak or the risk of an outbreak, and help them develop a national action plan for this response. A coordinated One Health approach that brings together the public, animal and environmental health sectors is recommended, as is a risk-based approach that uses risk assessment and mapping to determine the appropriate measures to be taken and the locations where they are required. A country’s RVF response can be best broken down into the four phases of the epidemiological cycle: the inter-epidemic, pre-epidemic, epidemic and post-epidemic periods. Surveillance, risk assessment and capacity building, for instance, are key during the inter-epidemic period, while the focus during the post-epidemic period shifts to mitigating the disease’s impact.
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    Recognizing rift valley fever 2003
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    Rift Valley fever is one of the most significant zoonotic disease problems in Africa. The occurrence of the highly fatal haemorrhagic human disease syndrome, similar to Ebola and other haemorrhagic fevers, generates a degree of panic among the human populations at risk. RVF is highly contagious for humans if animals are viraemic at the time of slaughtering. In susceptible livestock populations, it is responsible for large numbers of abortions and stillbirths. However, one of RVF’s greatest impacts is upon trade in livestock. Even if the disease tends to disappear after epizootics, livestock bans may last for several years, severely affecting the livelihood of pastoralists. This manual aims at helping staff from veterinary services and laboratories to recognize the disease rapidly when it occurs. It provides an overview of the disease, describes clinical signs and the most important differential diagnosis, and guides the user on how to proceed if a case of RV F is suspected. The manual is part of a series prepared by FAO’s Emergency System for Transboundary Animal and Plant Pests and Diseases (EMPRES) livestock unit, as an aid to emergency preparedness for the major transboundary diseases of livestock.
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    Rift Valley Fever could spread with movement of animals from East Africa 2007
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    RVF is a per-acute or acute disease of domestic ruminants, caused by a mosquito-borne virus and characterised by hepatic necrosis and internal haemorrhages. The severity and degree of clinical signs may vary according to age or breeds of the animals affected, with infections usually unapparent or mild in adults but high mortality rates in new-born animals and abortions in pregnant animals . RVF is a zoonotic disease and humans become infected through contact with tissues of infected animals or m osquito bites. Infection in humans is usually associated with mild to moderately severe influenza-like illness, but severe complications such as retinal damage and blindness, encephalitis or haemorrhagic disease occur in about 1% of patients. The case fatality rate in humans can be considerable.

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