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Exposure of humans or animals to SARS-CoV-2 from wild, livestock, companion and aquatic animals

Qualitative exposure assessment – Summary









Read the full document: Exposure of humans or animals to SARS-CoV-2 from wild, livestock, companion and aquatic animals.

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FAO. 2020. Exposure of humans or animals to SARS-CoV-2 from wild, livestock, companion and aquatic animals: Qualitative exposure assessment – Summary. Rome. 





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    Book (series)
    Exposure of humans or animals to SARS-CoV-2 from wild, livestock, companion and aquatic animals
    Qualitative exposure assessment
    2020
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    Understanding the risk of exposure of humans or animals to SARS-CoV-2 from animals and their products is essential for containing virus spread, prioritizing research, protecting food systems, and informing national One Health investigations and mitigation measures. This Qualitative Exposure Assessment provides a comprehensive review of available scientific evidence and assessment of exposure risk from different wild or domestic animal species. Results can inform country-level risk assessment and provide the evidence base for targeted SARS-CoV-2 investigations in animals and mitigation options. This publication provides: I. assessment of the risk of human or animal exposure to SARS-CoV-2 through contact with, handling or consumption of wild, domestic and aquatic animal species or their products; II. identification of current knowledge gaps regarding the zoonotic origin or animal-human spillover of SARS-CoV-2 and recommendations on priority studies; III. summary of available evidence for SARS-CoV-2 susceptibility of different animal species; IV. evidence-based recommendations on how to prioritize animal species for targeted field investigations or research studies; V. recommendations for targeted One Health investigations and epidemiological, laboratory, anthropological or seasonality studies to fill critical knowledge gaps evidenced by this exposure assessment.
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    Book (series)
    Human Exposure to Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus from Livestock or Wildlife Species 2017
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    Recurrent outbreaks of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in humans have been reported, mainly from the Arabian Peninsula, since 2012, with a notable outbreak in Republic of Korea from May through July 2015. To evaluate the role of domestic and wild animals, in particular dromedary camels and bats, and assess the likelihood of human exposure to MERS-CoV (i) through direct contact with these animals, (ii) while handling and consuming their products (milk, meat, urine) and (iii) from the environment at the animal-human interface (e.g. farms, households, slaughterhouses, markets, etc.), FAO prepared this qualitative release assessment. This assessment is based on information available as of 19 May 2017 and will be revised as circumstances change. It focuses on livestock-related aspects and is therefore restricted to an exposure assessment at the animal-human interface (i.e. a description of biological pathways necessary for exposure of humans to MERS-CoV released from animals and the estimation of its probability). For further aspects of the human infection and detailed consequence assessments, please refer to risk assessments by the World Health Organization (WHO).
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    Project
    Strengthening Regional Capacities to Address COVID-19 Impacts on Animal Health Sector in East and Southeast Asia - TCP/RAS/3801 2023
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    In December 2019, China reported cases of pneumonia with an unknown cause in Wuhan City. The causative agent was later attributed to a novel coronavirus – SARS-CoV-2. The virus quickly spread and became a global health threat, leading the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) a public health emergency of international concern in January 2020 and as a pandemic in March 2020. The outbreak was believed to be associated with a wet market in Wuhan where seafood and wild animals were sold. This was corroborated by environmental samples from the market that tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. The SARS-CoV-2 was suspected to have originated in bats and spread among humans, yet the transmission through livestock was believed possible. Some companion animals, such as dogs, cats and ferrets, have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 after close contact with infected humans. However, it is unclear whether these animals played a role in the spread of the virus among humans. In light of the One Health approach, there was a need to strengthen the capacities of animal health services to detect, prevent and manage the likely transmission of SARS-CoV-2 at the animal–human interface. The Emergency Centre for Transboundary Animal Diseases (ECTAD) in the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is well positioned to provide technical and operational support, in collaboration with FAO headquarters and ECTAD country teams, to address the impact of COVID-19 on food security, livelihoods related to livestock and the animal–human interface.

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