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NTFPs as a source of livelihood and climate change mitigation & adaptation: a case study from Jharkhand, India

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022









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    Use of traditional knowledge in sustainable forest management and provisioning of ecosystem services in Jharkhand, India
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Before Scientific knowledge on forest management, local and indigenous communities living in and around forests managed forest and associated landscapes managed forests in such a way which conserved forests and ecosystem, sustained their livelihood and culture. The tribals and other rural people residing in and around forest areas of Jharkhand, an eastern state of India, have their own traditional knowledge (TK) which they acquired by experience during sustainable use of natural resources. Hence such knowledge has the potential value for sustainable forest management, biodiversity conservation and provisioning of Ecosystem services. Traditional Knowledge encompasses a profound belief system associated with ecosystem, livelihoods, ethno medicinal practices, use of natural resources etc. and pass from generation to generation through legends, folk stories, folk songs etc. A study was carried out to know trajectories of SFM development and the role of the TK for SFM in Jharkhand, India. The study reflects that these TK are associated with practices like conservation through Sacred Grove, celebrating festivals based on the nature, taboos, social belief and various other practices which have been helpful in SFM. But in the contemporary globalization and commercialization, there is risk of erosion of such TK. Hence their documentation is necessary. Documentation of data related to traditional use of medicinal plants and other NTFPs like Lac, Silk, and Bamboo etc. for livelihood were done involving three major steps. These are – identification of medicinal plants and other NTFPs used for livelihood and other purposes, documentation of traditional uses and traditional knowledge associated with these NTFPs, and finally exploring how TK and scientific knowledge can be harmonized for SFM. Government policy in India and Jharkhand in this regard has brought about radical changes. With the adoption of Resolution related to Join Forest Management, enactment of Forest Right Act 2006, and implementing Forest Working plan Code 2014 by Government, there has been a perceptible change in approach towards assimilation of TK in SFM. The paper also presents how such knowledge and practices can be helpful in provisioning of ecosystem services. Keywords: Ecosystem services, Jharkhand, SFM, TK ID: 3476942
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    Land use and land use changes by the farmers from mulberry (Morus alba) plantations to green forest tree based farming for income growth and sustainability in Malda district of India
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Malda district was famous for two economic activities viz. Mango (Mangifera indica) cultivation and rearing mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori). Earlier silkworm rearing was a flourishing cottage industry and every households of Kaliachak block reared silkworm for cocoon production. It was the major livelihood of rural farmers but they suffered heavily due to cheap import of silk from China. Thus, the backbone of farmers was crippled, hence they started cultivating various trees in mulberry fields along with agricultural crops for sustaining their livelihood. Present study was undertaken to know how farmers adjusted to new situation, their knowledge about trees, income growth and sustainability. It was observed that mulberry was raised as herb and leaves were fed to the silkworm larvae at home. Traditionally farmers planted Dalbergia sissoo trees on the border of mulberry fields but later on they started planting other trees. A few farmers uprooted their mulberry bushes and converted to Swietenia macrophylla plantation. Some farmers converted their entire land to Mango and Litchi chinensis orchards for long term gains. Besides, some traditional farmers, around 10% still continued with silkworm rearing for their livelihood security but planted few rows of trees like Tectona grandis, D.sissoo, Bombax ceiba, S.macrophylla and Acacia auriculiformis. Few big farmers converted their mulberry fields into ponds for fishery, however, planted Mango and Sissoo on border. The first crops inside the tree plantations were Maize, Papaya and Vegetables which gave farmers quick income. Later, Banana and Citrus were planted. These activities are still continuing, but timber harvesting has also started which will give high returns. These forest tree based land changes not only provided sustainable income growth to farmers, but also made them drought resilient leading to climate change mitigation and adaptation besides conserving plant biodiversity. Key words: Landscape management, Agriculture, Biodiversity conservation ID: 3475637
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    Trajectory of forest management to meet climate challenge: Policy formulation in Jharkhand (India)
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Climate change is one of the defining issues of contemporary world, closely related to economic development based on natural resources. Impacts and risks related to climate change can be reduced and managed through adaptation and mitigation. A sustainable development approach may render solution for mitigation of Green House Gases and simultaneously, may also delve into the prospects of adaptation. For example ecosystem based adaptation (EBA) to climate change has potential to achieve objectives of REDD+. The economy of Jharkhand state of India is closely tied to its natural resource base and climate sensitive sectors like forestry, agriculture, water and health. An adverse impact on these sectors and climate related hazards exacerbate other factors, often with negative outcome which threatens livelihood option to the poor and marginalized people. The policies and documents enunciated by the government of India and subsequently by the government of Jharkhand recognize the potential for synergies between climate change mitigation and approach adopted for adaptations. Forests play an important role in climate change. Mitigation and Adaptation are two options for addressing climate changes. As per IPCC LULUCF Report, we have three types of mitigation activities in the forestry sector- Afforestation, Reforestation and avoiding deforestation. Forests play a role in adaptation of communities dependent on forests by providing local ecosystem services. A REDD+ approach is necessary for forest conservation and to maintain carbon stock. Sustainability of forests management is an essential component to meet climate challenge. The paper reviews area of vulnerability, area of improvement, action and policy thrusts which can make forests more resilient to natural disasters and shocks. It also discusses future drivers of land use change, connecting REDD+ for Sustainable Forest Management, enhancement of forest carbon stock and achieving Sustainable Development Goals. Keyword: Climate challenge, Forest management, Jharkhand, Policy ID: 3485943

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