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QU’EST CE QUE le compactage du sol






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    Meeting
    Complex emergencies, food Security and the quest for appropriate institutional responses: The centrality of an analytic capacity
    FAO International Workshop on “Food Security in Complex Emergencies: building policy frameworks to address longer-term programming challenges” Tivoli, 23-25 September 2003
    2003
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    With regard to the ‘complex emergencies’-‘food security’ nexus, institutional policies have often advanced generalized responses such as offering food aid to meet the challenges concerned. Such responses however may actually result from poor analysis or active interests to pursue particular solutions irrespective of the specific problem of situation. This paper will argue that with respect to ‘complex emergencies’ the kind of requirements they may pose to meet problems of food security, the scop e for developing general policy responses remains very limited. Cumbersome as it may appear, it rather appears advisable to start from an opposite premise, namely that each complex emergency requires its own analysis and response. In terms of preparatory action, this implies a need for less attention in searching for ready-made solutions, and more towards enhancement of institutional capacities to diagnose emergency situations when they arise and as they develop.
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    Article
    Paradigm tensions in institutional fields: FSC's quest for a holistic view of forests
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    This study investigates changes in forest paradigms from the perspective of FSC. The paper uses a basis of institutional theory to examine these paradigms, and FSC is defined as the referent organization for the institutional field of sustainable forest management. Data was collected through qualitative semi-structured interviews, with 25 interviews in 2016-2017 and 26 interviews in 2020. Interviewees include sustainability experts for corporations, NGOs, environmental campaigners, and FSC staff, members, and board members. Our analysis shows that while FSC is calling for a change in forest paradigms, the holistic paradigm for FSC and the sustainable forest management remains constant. Instead, what they are calling for is change in the wider societal paradigm. FSC’s forest paradigm has been holistic from its inception, and field members either hold these views before joining, or adjust their values to align to the field over time. Conversely, society is shifting from a timber-focused forest paradigm to a carbon-focused forest paradigm. We view both the homogenization and the shift of views to be processes of appreciation, where views are built up, reinforced, and changed through reality judgements of experiences and trends, and value judgements of the assessed information. The shift of societal paradigms causes tensions for FSC, which it is currently attempting to resolve with its new Global Strategy. We conclude that FSC’s call for a new paradigm is actually a call for society’s appreciation of forest to converge with its holistic view, but that this will be difficult to achieve as its position as the referent organization for sustainable management has limitations. We also conclude that multistakeholder organizations need to continually update their systems to remain relevant for changing environmental, social and sustainability demands, but that this does not require a change of paradigm. Keywords: Institutional theory, paradigms, FSC, holistic value, fields ID: 3485587
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