This flagship publication is part of The State of the World series of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.

Required citation:
FAO. 2023. The State of Food and Agriculture 2023Revealing the true cost of food to transform agrifood systems. Rome.

The designations employed and the presentation of material in this information product do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) concerning the legal or development status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dashed lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or products of manufacturers, whether or not these have been patented, does not imply that these have been endorsed or recommended by FAO in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned.

ISSN 0081-4539 (print)
ISSN 1564-3352 (online)
ISBN 978-92-5-138167-0
© FAO, 2023

Creative Commons “B Y - N C - S A“ licenses logo.

Some rights reserved. This work is made available under the Creative Commons Attribution - 4.0 International licence (CC BY 4.0:

Under the terms of this licence, this work may be copied, redistributed and adapted, provided that the work is appropriately cited. In any use of this work, there should be no suggestion that FAO endorses any specific organization, products or services. The use of the FAO logo is not permitted. If a translation of this work is created, it must include the following disclaimer along with the required citation: “This translation was not created by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO). FAO is not responsible for the content or accuracy of this translation. The original English edition shall be the authoritative edition.”

Any dispute, controversy or claim arising out of or in relation to this Agreement shall be settled by mutual agreement between the Parties. If the Parties are unable to reach an agreement on any question in dispute or on a mode of settlement other than arbitration, each Party shall have the right to request arbitration in accordance with the Arbitration Rules of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) as at present in force. The Parties agree to be bound by any arbitration award rendered in accordance with the above-mentioned rules as the final adjudication of any such dispute.

Third-party materials and photographs. Users wishing to reuse material from this work that is attributed to a third party, such as tables, figures or images, are responsible for determining whether permission is needed for that reuse and for obtaining permission from the copyright holder. The risk of claims resulting from infringement of any third-party-owned component in the work rests solely with the user. Any photographs that may appear in this work are not subject to the above-mentioned Creative Commons licence. Queries for the use of all photographs should be submitted to:

Sales, rights and licensing. FAO information products are available on the FAO website ( and can be purchased through Requests for commercial use should be submitted via: Queries regarding rights and licensing should be submitted to:

COVER PHOTOGRAPH ©Curioso.Photography/

SPAIN. Fruit market in La Boqueria marketplace in Barcelona.

back to top