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Élaboration d’une politique et d’une stratégie forestière régionale de l’IGAD - TCP/SFE/3605









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    Project
    Develop an IGAD Regional Forestry Policy and Strategy - TCP/SFE/3605 2020
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    The IGAD is a regional body that coordinates development efforts across its Member States, which include Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. The IGAD area covers an estimated 230 million people and is characterized by high rates of population growth and poverty, with a substantial proportion of people living below the poverty line (USD 1 per day). In IGAD Member States, agriculture is crucial to food security and nutrition, economic growth and social stability. More specifically, for over 80 percent of the population, agricultural production and animal husbandry are important sources of food and livelihood opportunities. Overall, they account for between 25 and 30 percent of national economies within the IGAD area. Pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities are particularly at risk from the effects of recurring droughts in the region. During periods of drought, livestock are highly susceptible to water shortages and pasture scarcity. This can lead to the suffering and death not only of livestock but also of people whose livelihoods depend on them. Further complicating matters, markets often collapse as a result of the sell-off of weaker and thinner animals. In addition, drought affects the seasonal migration patterns of herds, which are required to search for adequate water resources and pastures for grazing. The increased competition for limited natural resources remains a point of conflict both between communities and across borders. The effective management of natural resources therefore requires international cooperation through adequate policies and strategies. While efforts have been made to address concerns regarding the management of some natural resources, policies are not harmonized across the IGAD area and there is often disagreement about the best management approaches to adopt. Additionally, many challenges are faced in the implementation of these policies, including the lack of adequate funding and/or political impetus.
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    Book (series)
    Negotiated territorial development in a multi-stakeholders participatory Resource Planning approach: an initial sustainable framework for the Near east Region 2016
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    No results found.

    Throughout the Near East, land and water shortages, land degradation, out of date land tenure systems and food insecurity are compounded by asymmetries in gender roles and power, by severe imbalances in the political-military structures within and between countries, by flagrant deficiencies in land and water management and control systems, and by the incessant increases in demand driven by high rates of population growth and urbanization. This interplay of forces and dynamics form a complex hydr o socio-political web that governs the allocation land and water and who benefits from their availability and their ultimate sustainability. The current allocation arrangements of the region's three major river basins - the Nile, the Euphrates-Tigris and the Jordan - are nascent sources of tension, and potential sources of conflict and violence. Political instability that characterizes the Near East continues to intensify scarcity, suppresses growth and engenders poverty and is being increasingl y exacerbated by the impending consequences of climate change. The Middle East is one of the most water poor and water stressed regions of the globe. While the region is home to 5.1% of the people of the world, it has about only 1% of the world renewable fresh water. Today's annual per capita availability of fresh water in the region is only one seventh of its 1960 level, falling from 3,300 cubic metres per person in 1960 to less than 500 cubic metres in 2015. This is the lowest per capita wat er availability in the world. The current land tenure systems are failing to address long-standing problems that include smallholder farmers, landless households and most marginalized groups such as women continue to compete for shrinking natural recourses, while pastoralists are losing control of their traditional grazing areas. Use, management and access to land and water are becoming extremely sensitive matters as the number of users grows. Governments and local actors have often perceived these major issues differently. This requires effort to be made to ensure a participatory approach to decision-making that effectively involves all the local actors concerned in an equitable and balanced manner. About 90% of the land area in this Region is subject to land degradation in different forms and over 45% of land suitable to farming is exposed to various types of land degradation which include soil nutrient depletion, salinity and wind and water erosion. Per capita arable land availa bility in the region is among the lowest in the world where many countries in the region show levels that are exceptionally low (on average less than 0.123 hectares per person) and the range varies between 0.01 hectares per person (Oman, Qatar, Palestine, Kuwait and Bahrain) to 0.34 hectares in the Sudan in 2015. Arable land as a percentage of land area in the region is very low ranging between 0.1% in Oman to 18.4% in Tunisia in 2013. Most of the countries in the region show shares below 10%. O nly Morocco, Tunisia, and Iraq sow percentages above 10%. Irrigated land areas in the region also represent a small share of total arable land areas. In many of the countries in the region these shares are way below the world average. Only Iran (17.4%) and the UAE (12.5%) show high relative shares in the period 2011-2015. The Region’s critical shortage of water and cultivable land, including the increasing pressure on these resources and their degradation makes their efficient management a pa ramount task. It will be necessary in this regard to promote the engagement of all concerned stakeholders in planning and managing land, water and agrobiodiversity. Actual physical scarcity of land and water, even in the Middle East region, is not the only key issue. Conditions of economic scarcity seem to be equally pressing; there is perhaps enough land and water to meet society's need, but there are few incentives for wise, efficient and egalitarian use of these critical resources. Climate change will impinge on this region’s fragile water balances, suitable land for cultivation, grazing land and food production capacities and will exacerbate the problems and issues of food security. Measures, policies, strategies and institutional capacities to mitigate the impending catastrophic consequences of climate change and to improve the societies’ resilience and adaptation to its consequences are needed now. The sooner the regulatory and institutional setups are put in place the easier the task to deal with climate and other risks. It is necessary and vital to rise up to this challenge by enlisting the stakeholders in the initiatives to promote sustainability and efficiency of land and water use and the management of food security issues. An active engagement of concerned stakeholders in planning and managing water, land and agrobiodiversity necessitates first and foremost the engagement of and participation of particularly women and girls and marginalized groups in all wate r and food aspects as they constitute the main agricultural labour force and the most deprived segments of society. Gender and the water and land nexus in the Arab region is an area where there is still relative little information. There is little systematic knowledge about the many means by which women and men manage water and land in the region. Evidence shows that while women in Egypt have a significant role to play in water use in the process of food production by controlling and managi ng water flows in the fields and supervising workers during irrigation, they rarely own the land they cultivate. Rural women in Yemen spend huge amounts of time collecting and transporting water, often up and down steep slopes and coordinate water allocation and distribution for the various needs of the family and the household but they are rarely involved in decision making and management councils that govern land and water uses. Women everywhere in the Middle East evaluate water quantity and q uality and prioritize water for drinking and health and sanitation purposes but they rarely share equally in the benefits of their labor or in the ownership of the land and water resources. This is why an integrated water and land management system anchored on a genuine participation of stakeholders will be crucial in determining whether the Arab world achieves the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and aspirations for reducing poverty and enhancing shared prosperity. Water and land are the c ommon currency which links nearly every SDG, and it will be a critical determinant of success. Abundant water supplies and cultivable land are vital for the production of food and will be essential to attaining SDG 2 on food security; clean and safe drinking water and sanitation systems are necessary for health as called for in SDGs 3 and 6; and water is needed for powering industries and creating the new jobs identified in SDGs 7 and 8. None of this is achievable without adequate and safe water and sufficient suitable land to nourish the planet’s life-sustaining ecosystem services identified in SDGs 13, 14 and 15.
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    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Cross-border coordination of livestock movements and sharing of natural resources to strengthen the resilience of pastoralist communities in the Greater Karamoja Cluster
    Operationalising the humanitarian-development-peace nexus through the promotion of intercommunity coexistence
    2019
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    Frequent and persistent droughts are a recurrent feature of the Greater Karamoja Cluster (GKC). The impacts of these droughts are exacerbated by climate change, advancing desertification and the environmental degradation of rangelands. The resulting persistent food insecurity of pastoralist communities is worsened by the occurence of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) and the eruption of conflicts over natural resources within countries and across borders. The Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) decade-long work in the GKC shows that interventions focusing on livestock mobility and natural resource management play an important role towards strengthening livelihoods, sustaining peace and indirectly preventing conflict. More specifically, the sustainable cross-border sharing of natural resources and the coordination of animal movements (and the services associated with it, such as vaccination and health inspection) have been used effectively by FAO and its partners to prevent and mitigate conflicts. Interventions combining a focus on livestock mobility and the preservation of natural resources with the goals of sustainable social transformation, innovation and conflict prevention have proved most cost-effective at increasing resilience. FAO and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development’s (IGAD) Centre for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development (ICPALD) have been the main facilitators of efforts to promote intercommunity, cross-border coordination of livestock mobility and sharing of natural resources in IGAD cross-border areas. This document presents FAO’s experience in this respect, gained over the past decade in different cross-border areas of Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and South Sudan.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Project
    Develop an IGAD Regional Forestry Policy and Strategy - TCP/SFE/3605 2020
    Also available in:

    The IGAD is a regional body that coordinates development efforts across its Member States, which include Djibouti, Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, South Sudan, Sudan and Uganda. The IGAD area covers an estimated 230 million people and is characterized by high rates of population growth and poverty, with a substantial proportion of people living below the poverty line (USD 1 per day). In IGAD Member States, agriculture is crucial to food security and nutrition, economic growth and social stability. More specifically, for over 80 percent of the population, agricultural production and animal husbandry are important sources of food and livelihood opportunities. Overall, they account for between 25 and 30 percent of national economies within the IGAD area. Pastoralist and agro-pastoralist communities are particularly at risk from the effects of recurring droughts in the region. During periods of drought, livestock are highly susceptible to water shortages and pasture scarcity. This can lead to the suffering and death not only of livestock but also of people whose livelihoods depend on them. Further complicating matters, markets often collapse as a result of the sell-off of weaker and thinner animals. In addition, drought affects the seasonal migration patterns of herds, which are required to search for adequate water resources and pastures for grazing. The increased competition for limited natural resources remains a point of conflict both between communities and across borders. The effective management of natural resources therefore requires international cooperation through adequate policies and strategies. While efforts have been made to address concerns regarding the management of some natural resources, policies are not harmonized across the IGAD area and there is often disagreement about the best management approaches to adopt. Additionally, many challenges are faced in the implementation of these policies, including the lack of adequate funding and/or political impetus.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Book (series)
    Negotiated territorial development in a multi-stakeholders participatory Resource Planning approach: an initial sustainable framework for the Near east Region 2016
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    Throughout the Near East, land and water shortages, land degradation, out of date land tenure systems and food insecurity are compounded by asymmetries in gender roles and power, by severe imbalances in the political-military structures within and between countries, by flagrant deficiencies in land and water management and control systems, and by the incessant increases in demand driven by high rates of population growth and urbanization. This interplay of forces and dynamics form a complex hydr o socio-political web that governs the allocation land and water and who benefits from their availability and their ultimate sustainability. The current allocation arrangements of the region's three major river basins - the Nile, the Euphrates-Tigris and the Jordan - are nascent sources of tension, and potential sources of conflict and violence. Political instability that characterizes the Near East continues to intensify scarcity, suppresses growth and engenders poverty and is being increasingl y exacerbated by the impending consequences of climate change. The Middle East is one of the most water poor and water stressed regions of the globe. While the region is home to 5.1% of the people of the world, it has about only 1% of the world renewable fresh water. Today's annual per capita availability of fresh water in the region is only one seventh of its 1960 level, falling from 3,300 cubic metres per person in 1960 to less than 500 cubic metres in 2015. This is the lowest per capita wat er availability in the world. The current land tenure systems are failing to address long-standing problems that include smallholder farmers, landless households and most marginalized groups such as women continue to compete for shrinking natural recourses, while pastoralists are losing control of their traditional grazing areas. Use, management and access to land and water are becoming extremely sensitive matters as the number of users grows. Governments and local actors have often perceived these major issues differently. This requires effort to be made to ensure a participatory approach to decision-making that effectively involves all the local actors concerned in an equitable and balanced manner. About 90% of the land area in this Region is subject to land degradation in different forms and over 45% of land suitable to farming is exposed to various types of land degradation which include soil nutrient depletion, salinity and wind and water erosion. Per capita arable land availa bility in the region is among the lowest in the world where many countries in the region show levels that are exceptionally low (on average less than 0.123 hectares per person) and the range varies between 0.01 hectares per person (Oman, Qatar, Palestine, Kuwait and Bahrain) to 0.34 hectares in the Sudan in 2015. Arable land as a percentage of land area in the region is very low ranging between 0.1% in Oman to 18.4% in Tunisia in 2013. Most of the countries in the region show shares below 10%. O nly Morocco, Tunisia, and Iraq sow percentages above 10%. Irrigated land areas in the region also represent a small share of total arable land areas. In many of the countries in the region these shares are way below the world average. Only Iran (17.4%) and the UAE (12.5%) show high relative shares in the period 2011-2015. The Region’s critical shortage of water and cultivable land, including the increasing pressure on these resources and their degradation makes their efficient management a pa ramount task. It will be necessary in this regard to promote the engagement of all concerned stakeholders in planning and managing land, water and agrobiodiversity. Actual physical scarcity of land and water, even in the Middle East region, is not the only key issue. Conditions of economic scarcity seem to be equally pressing; there is perhaps enough land and water to meet society's need, but there are few incentives for wise, efficient and egalitarian use of these critical resources. Climate change will impinge on this region’s fragile water balances, suitable land for cultivation, grazing land and food production capacities and will exacerbate the problems and issues of food security. Measures, policies, strategies and institutional capacities to mitigate the impending catastrophic consequences of climate change and to improve the societies’ resilience and adaptation to its consequences are needed now. The sooner the regulatory and institutional setups are put in place the easier the task to deal with climate and other risks. It is necessary and vital to rise up to this challenge by enlisting the stakeholders in the initiatives to promote sustainability and efficiency of land and water use and the management of food security issues. An active engagement of concerned stakeholders in planning and managing water, land and agrobiodiversity necessitates first and foremost the engagement of and participation of particularly women and girls and marginalized groups in all wate r and food aspects as they constitute the main agricultural labour force and the most deprived segments of society. Gender and the water and land nexus in the Arab region is an area where there is still relative little information. There is little systematic knowledge about the many means by which women and men manage water and land in the region. Evidence shows that while women in Egypt have a significant role to play in water use in the process of food production by controlling and managi ng water flows in the fields and supervising workers during irrigation, they rarely own the land they cultivate. Rural women in Yemen spend huge amounts of time collecting and transporting water, often up and down steep slopes and coordinate water allocation and distribution for the various needs of the family and the household but they are rarely involved in decision making and management councils that govern land and water uses. Women everywhere in the Middle East evaluate water quantity and q uality and prioritize water for drinking and health and sanitation purposes but they rarely share equally in the benefits of their labor or in the ownership of the land and water resources. This is why an integrated water and land management system anchored on a genuine participation of stakeholders will be crucial in determining whether the Arab world achieves the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and aspirations for reducing poverty and enhancing shared prosperity. Water and land are the c ommon currency which links nearly every SDG, and it will be a critical determinant of success. Abundant water supplies and cultivable land are vital for the production of food and will be essential to attaining SDG 2 on food security; clean and safe drinking water and sanitation systems are necessary for health as called for in SDGs 3 and 6; and water is needed for powering industries and creating the new jobs identified in SDGs 7 and 8. None of this is achievable without adequate and safe water and sufficient suitable land to nourish the planet’s life-sustaining ecosystem services identified in SDGs 13, 14 and 15.
  • Thumbnail Image
    Brochure, flyer, fact-sheet
    Cross-border coordination of livestock movements and sharing of natural resources to strengthen the resilience of pastoralist communities in the Greater Karamoja Cluster
    Operationalising the humanitarian-development-peace nexus through the promotion of intercommunity coexistence
    2019
    Also available in:
    No results found.

    Frequent and persistent droughts are a recurrent feature of the Greater Karamoja Cluster (GKC). The impacts of these droughts are exacerbated by climate change, advancing desertification and the environmental degradation of rangelands. The resulting persistent food insecurity of pastoralist communities is worsened by the occurence of transboundary animal diseases (TADs) and the eruption of conflicts over natural resources within countries and across borders. The Food and Agriculture Organization’s (FAO) decade-long work in the GKC shows that interventions focusing on livestock mobility and natural resource management play an important role towards strengthening livelihoods, sustaining peace and indirectly preventing conflict. More specifically, the sustainable cross-border sharing of natural resources and the coordination of animal movements (and the services associated with it, such as vaccination and health inspection) have been used effectively by FAO and its partners to prevent and mitigate conflicts. Interventions combining a focus on livestock mobility and the preservation of natural resources with the goals of sustainable social transformation, innovation and conflict prevention have proved most cost-effective at increasing resilience. FAO and the Intergovernmental Authority on Development’s (IGAD) Centre for Pastoral Areas and Livestock Development (ICPALD) have been the main facilitators of efforts to promote intercommunity, cross-border coordination of livestock mobility and sharing of natural resources in IGAD cross-border areas. This document presents FAO’s experience in this respect, gained over the past decade in different cross-border areas of Ethiopia, Kenya, Uganda and South Sudan.

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