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EU Transversal support to country implementation - Eswatini

Enhanced Capacity for Sustainable Land Administration and Management at National Regional and Chiefdom Levels










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    Support transversal de l'UE à la mise en oeuvre dans les pays - Eswatini
    Amélioration des capacités d’administration et de gestion durables des terres aux niveaux national, régional et des chefferies
    2020
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    Les ressources foncières du Royaume d’Eswatini sont soumises à une pression grandissante, qui est entraînée par une population en augmentation, la demande croissante pour une agriculture irriguée, la foresterie industrielle, le pâturage du bétail, la conservation de la biodiversité et la colonisation rurale non contrôlée. L’absence d’un système efficace d’administration et de gestion des terres (cadastre) qui peut être utilisé par toutes les organisations liées à la terre constitue donc un problème technique majeur. La plupart des terres d’Eswatini sont détenues en fiducie par le roi au nom de tous les citoyens; cette forme de régime foncier coutumier est assez sécurisée mais n’offre pas de garantie ni ne permet le transfert des droits des utilisateurs. Dans le cadre de la gestion et de l’administration traditionnelles, l’attribution des terres demeure dans la mémoire du chef et des membres de son conseil. Lorsque des terres sont attribuées, le chef ou son représentant parcourt les limites du terrain et pose des balises qui délimitent la zone. Celles-ci sont normalement respectées par tous les membres de la communauté. L’attribution de droits d’utilisation aux groupes familiaux n’est pas documentée et le terrain n’est pas délimité, ce qui crée des difficultés pour l’administration et la gestion des terres rurales. L’objectif global de le Programme de l’Union Europeenne sur la gouvernance foncière - mise en oeuvre par pays (PUEGF MP (EULGP CI pour ses sigles en anglais)) est d’améliorer la sécurité alimentaire et l’accès à la terre pour les ruraux pauvres. Il cherche à aider le Royaume d’Eswatini à relever ce défi en renforçant les outils analytiques et les capacités nécessaires à une administration et une gestion foncières durables, réunissant ainsi les systèmes traditionnels et modernes.
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    EU Transversal support to country implementation - Uganda
    Improvement of Land Governance in Uganda to increase the productivity of small-scale farmers on Mailo land (ILGU)
    2019
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    Uganda is a landlocked, agriculture-based country with a total land area of 241,559 sq. km out of which 16 percent is occupied by open water. The Ugandan Constitution (1995) provides for four Land Tenure systems mailo (Central Uganda), lease, freehold and customary (mainly in the North of Uganda). To date, 10 percent of the land is formally documented and 80 percent is under customary tenure. The objectives of the EULGP CI are to improve securing secondary land use rights for bona fide and lawful tenants to support agricultural investments with a long-term perspective of reducing poverty and hunger. Implementation of the law for facilitate responsible land governance. Strengthen of the institutional framework through human capital in land-related sections of district and sub-county administrations. Introduce user-friendly information and communication technology for promoting effective procedures for documenting existing land use rights. *EULGP CI stands for European Union Land Governance Programme – Country Implementation
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    Country Study on Status of Land Tenure, Planning and Management in Oriental Near East Countries
    Case of Egypt
    2012
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    The share of agriculture in the GDP declined from 16 percent in the 1990s to almost 14 percent in 2010. Meanwhile, those employed in agriculture as a percent of total labor force is declining since 1960 to 2006. Despite losing labor and share of the GDP, agriculture is, and will continue to be, among the major economic activities in Egypt, and a generator for economic growth. The balance between agriculture and other productive sectors of the economy require proper spatial and land use planning. Land tenure is central to this planning exercise. Land property right is the result of common factors, such as occupation and religion i.e. Islam, and agro-climatic conditions. Land property rights are multiple and complex. They are inherited from pre-Islamic rules (Orf), Islamic (Sharia) and colonial as well as post-colonial legislation. All these rules are co-existed. There are number of land status (regimes) such as private ownership (melk), collective land (waqf). Also there is a dichotomy (rural-urban).Land policy formulation and management in Egypt have been transforming in close association with institutional transformations. Since the Ottomans, to Mohamed Ali, to the Nasser‟s regime, and ending by the Mubarak administration, each period of time had its dogma and accordingly its land tenure systems. Today, Egypt has investment opportunities map till 2017 that defines land uses for the overall development. Today there are number of institutions responsible for planning the uses of this land and the mechanism to transfer the ownership of this land.The land question can be framed in the current status of dwarf and fragmented holdings. This is the result of complicated procedures to secure property right, inheritance, and increased prices and/or rents per unit of land used for agricultural or non-agricultural uses. Consequences include persisted rural poverty, violent disputes as a result of increased population densities and informality. The impacts are a multitude of ec onomic inefficiency and idle land markets.Laws and regulations that govern land markets come in ten sets of groups. Islamic, customary and civic laws co-exist next to each other. The institutional framework that governs land markets need serious transformations including, but not limited to, redefining the mission and mandate of public bodies responsible for land distribution and sectoral development, and adopting principles of good governance.For perfectly competitive land markets, there is a n eed for updated cadastral and registry of land by which each parcel of land has a national identification number. The registry has to include specification of each parcel, information concerning the owner(s), sub-divisions, etc. Aside of these corrective and preventive measures, there is a need for a wide range of supportive measures. Educating and enlightening the public with their rights and means to access land is essential for perfectly competitive markets. Applying taxes on wind-fall gains is another measure to control freezing savings and money in the form of land and vacant dwellings. Also levying an annual tax on unused land and closed dwellings is prone to divert money needed for investment away and curb the tendency to speculative practices. This recommendation is in line with Islamic Shariya where the owners of utilized assets, in the form of land, gold, real estate, etc. have to pay 2.5 percent of its assessed value in the form of zakat. This recommendation will free frozen assets, and will avail money for investment that can generate employment opportunities.

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