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The genomic selection of Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora)

XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022










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    Sustainable tree improvement scheme leading to economical carbon cycling in teak
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    The sustainability and efficiency of timber plantations need to be enhanced to meet the global demand for industrial roundwood which is forecasted to increase by 60% by 2030. Tectona grandis (teak) is one of the premier timber species with a lot of promise for short rotation. We demonstrate a potential pipeline to establish a smart plantation for teak using genetically improved propagules, tissue culture, and seed orchards. The primary step in establishing a smart plantation is the production of quality propagules after evaluating the genetic make-up of the parent trees. With the availability of whole-genome sequence and genetic marker information in teak, long-term genetic gain of propagules can be attained through the best use of genetic variance. This objective can be achieved by following an optimal mating scheme such as genomic mating, and selection based on the breeding value of individuals as well as that of groups. Through genomic selection and mating, favorable alleles can be retained in the population to maximize genetic merit and sustain it for multiple generations. This pipeline is also expected to save a lot of time in years while facilitating the establishment of elite plants in the plantation. Through tissue culture, the only route to commercialize teak clones, the genetically improved clones can be distributed for plantation establishment. Multi-trait improvement with the aim of producing trees with more volume, short-rotation, and tolerance to pests and pathogens are considered for genomic selection and mating. With appropriate silvicultural management, the smart plantations established can facilitate carbon cycling in a better and sustainable way. Keywords: Genetic resources, Innovation, Sustainable forest management, Research ID: 3614687
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    Genome-Wide Association Scan Suggests Basis for Microtia in Awassi Sheep 2016
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    Microtia, the underdevelopment of the pinna, the structural part of the outer ear, has been observed in many species,including humans, mice, dogs and various livestock. Microtia is relatively prevalent in sheep, observed in multiple breeds including some entire populations, but its genetic basis has not been described. The Awassi sheep, a breed native to Southwest Asia, carries this phenotype and was targeted for molecular characterization via a genome-wide association study . DNA samples wer e collected from sheep flocks in Jordan, within the native range of the Awassi. Samples from eight affected and twelve normal individuals were genotyped with the Illumina OvineSNP50 ® chip. Haplotype-based analyses failed to identify any major runs of homozygosity associated with the trait. In contrast, a single-locus genome-wide association analysis revealed a solitary statistically significant association (P= 0.012, genome wide) with a single-nucleotide polymorphism at base-pair 34,647,4 99 on OAR23. This marker is adjacent to the gene encoding transcription factor GATA-6, which has been shown to play a critical role in many developmental processes, including chondrogenesis. The lack of extended homozygosity in this region suggests a fairly ancient mutation, and the time of occurrence was estimated to be approximately 860 generations ago. This result suggests that many of the sheep breeds showing this phenotype may share the causative mutation, especially within the sub- group of fat-tailed, wool sheep.
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    On the hybridization and DNA polymorphism in hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.)
    XV World Forestry Congress, 2-6 May 2022
    2022
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    Hickory, a nut-producing and wind-pollinated non-timber species narrowly distributed in the region between Zhejiang and Anhui provinces of China, has grown in wild or semi-wild condition for a long time. For no cultivar developed so far under the species, propagation through seeding is mainly adopted in the production. Reciprocal hybridization between hickory and pecan (C. illinoensis) has been conducted since the 1960s and heterosis and a seedling phenotype resembling to the maternal parent have been observed. But analyses of hickory samples from natural forest with such molecular markers as RAPD, ISSR, SRAP, AFLP and SSR have revealed a low DNA polymorphism. What is more, apomixis in hickory has been embryologically confirmed, but found to be distributed unevenly on the chromosomal regions. With ten pairs of SSR primers applicable to both species, we analyzed two populations of the progeny resulting from reciprocal hybridization between hickory and pecan (47 individuals each population) and amplified heterozygous loci were identified, which indicates that hickory and pecan can be reciprocally crossed. Both progeny populations had no significant difference in such parameters as the number of effective alleles (Ne), Shannon information index (I), observed heterozygosity (Ho), expected heterozygosity (He) and unbiased expected heterozygosity (uHe) (P>0.05) and the average I of each progeny population was not low (0.511 and 0.496, respectively) although the mean He of both populations was similar (0.371 and 0.317, respectively). The analysis of molecular variance showed that 71% of the variation occurred between individuals within the population. Analysis with the Structure software also found each individual of both progeny populations had a relatively low proportion of genome originating from the paternal parent, potentially indicating phenotypic resemblance to its maternal parent. It has been reported that pecan is highly heterozygous, so is hickory from our work. Keyword: Biodiversity conservation ID: 3485343

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